Using a prospective longitudinal high-risk paradigm, the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study (BIDS) has been following, since birth, a sample of children at familial risk for ADHD. In this study, the risk for ADHD has been defined as the presence of ADHD symptoms in fathers. We assessed this sample periodically, since the birth of the children, during home and lab visits. Our initial publications were based on a dichotomous split between risk and comparison groups based on the recruitment questionnaire. Later analyses used the CAARS questionnaires which produced a continuum range of risk scores. The BIDS sample provides a unique opportunity for tracing the risk for developing ADHD and looking for its developmental pathways. Early temperamental differences were consistently found since infancy. Moreover, the early temperament dimensions of EC, activity level, and anger were predictive of ADHD symptoms about 10 years later, when the participants reached adolescence. Moreover, although activity level showed specificity to hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms rather than to inattention symptoms, EC and anger were more general predictors. When the children were at kindergarten age, they were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Paternal symptoms measured in the child's early infancy predicted the child?s performance in the stop-signal task: Paternal inattentiveness predicted SSRT, whereas hyperactivity predicted error proportion. Maternal symptoms were not correlated with the performance of the child in the task. A subsample of children, who were tested while electrophysiological brain activity was measured, showed that having higher ADHD symptomatology, especially hyperactivity, correlated with less activity in the brain areas that are usually recruited by children for successful inhibition.
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